the economic empowerment of women: the case of working women\'s forum, india.

by:Chengbai     2020-05-01
Abstract Dr.
The recipient of Padmasri, Jaya Arunachalam, established the Working Women\'s Forum in 1978 with the aim of improving social and economic levels
Life of the poorest women in Tamil Nadu, India.
The WWF now has more than 7 or 00 female members.
This case study deals with how technology can help these micro-entrepreneurs do their business more effectively and how technology can make a huge difference in their way of life.
Key words: micro-enterprises, social entrepreneurs, women\'s non-governmental organizationsUN)
2005 has been announcedCredit.
More than 20 million of the world\'s poorest families now have access to microfinance, enabling them to survive the impact of poverty.
Forum on working women (WWF)
A non-governmental organization and an association based in Chennai, more than 700,000 women have created a large database of members using appropriate information technology, they also manage their social background, borrowing and family information and constantly upgrade their member information.
Database management consisting of data warehouse and data mining retrieves any information in the shortest possible time to help them efficiently serve members.
Such a massive maintenance of nearly a million members details and their progressive operation requires less technical adoption.
The outstanding feature of this intervention is that not all women with higher education have adopted this technology.
They were trained and effectively disseminated their knowledge to members with confidence in the system.
There is no doubt that this technology certainly serves their cause and has also proved to be low cost and acceptable.
The challenge for WWF today is to get funding to help the development of existing micro-enterprises
By providing entrepreneurs with the training they need, they have also attracted new micro-
Entrepreneurs who give these loans.
About Organization: Working Women\'s Forum of WWF (WWF)
In Chennai (
The name was Madras)
In southern India in 1978, in order to meet the needs of women living in slums and working in small jobs
Traders and suppliers of scale.
The idea started in the medium term.
In their 70 s, a small group of 30 female vendors were organized with the help of Madras\'s political/social worker Jaycee unachalam.
They met a bank manager and got a loan from Rs. 300 (US$33)each.
The group elected a leader who collected the bank\'s money from members every day.
The idea worked: 95% repayment.
By April 1978, 800 women had been organized into 40 groups and loans had been granted.
The working women Forum was born.
Maintain a broad society-
From an economic and political point of view, the establishment of the World Conference on women has the following objectives: * to establish a women\'s association working in the unorganized or informal sector;
: Improve the skills of professional women through training, material input, credit and promotion services;
: Support the necessary social services for working women and their families (e. g.
Child care, education, health, family planning)etc.
About 165 women members of WWF participated in different businesses in urban and rural areas.
The professional features of these employees vary according to different cultural backgrounds (Table. 1).
List of operations of WWF members according to loan application records: vegetable vending machines, rice traders, snack makers, Sari/cut-block traders, waste paper shops, meat owners, fruit sellers, beedi roller, junk shop owner, junk Smith, biscuit maker, scrap shop owner, Carpenter, Bead stringer, shoe shop owner, ready-
Garmentseller, Sari block printer, wood box manufacturer, fish supplier, Goldsmith, tooth powder manufacturer, stationery store, Mat Weaver, bicycle owner, brush manufacturer, mobile equipment manufacturer, grocery seller, leaf plate manufacturer, silk traders, \"idle \"(
Ground rice cooked)
Golden Garland, Panda (Ornament)
Manufacturer, flower seller, candy stall owner, plastic flower manufacturer, wire bag maker, snack bar owner, Teastall owner, tailor, Wood appliance manufacturer, pottery stall owner, loader, toyIndian Co-
Women\'s Business Network (ICNW)The Indian Co-
WWF\'s credit sector is the women\'s business network, which encourages poor women to start their businesses by providing low-interest loans to improve their social/financial independence.
The international credit network with credit as the entry point effectively serves the poorest borrowers and becomes a tool for social change.
The National Federation of Professional Women provides women with better options for livelihood (NUWW)
The National Labor Women\'s Union and the World Wide Fund for Nature Union facilitated poor women in the course of social action ---
To combat human rights issues such as abandonment, land, housing, representation in local governance, such as female births, female infanticide, prostitution and child labor.
NUWW maintains women\'s rights through collective action and solidarity. The micro-
The insurance plan for WWF members is managed through NUWW.
Insurance items include life insurance, accident insurance, disability insurance and health insurance.
More than 600,000 women are members of the program.
About Entrepreneurs: Jawaharlal Nehru, India\'s first prime minister, said: \"You can judge the situation of a country by observing the status of women . \".
Of the 92 million working women in India, less than 3% are in administrative positions.
An elite woman like this lights up the light of life for millions of poor working women.
Chennai Arunachalam is the founder of the women\'s work Forum, known in Chennai as the WWF.
The recipients of Indian President padmasri in 1987 empower millions of poor working women in Indian cities and rural villages through technology.
At the \"padmasri\" awards ceremony
Common Thomas Carter
The American professional league has sent a thank-you letter to the doctor.
Jaya said: \"It\'s a pleasure to see your name included in the list granted to Padmasri this year.
Of course, this is a well-deserved honor.
Your contribution through the Worlang Women\'s Forum goes far beyond those who benefit directly, as your achievements inspire others in India and the rest of the world and give them hope. \" Dr.
Jaya Arunachalam is the Working Women\'s Forum of the chairman (India)
In 1978, a social organization began to develop the full human resources potential of women workers in the information sector who are very poor.
Master of economics and geography
Arunachalam\'s management in Washington, D. C. , has aDiploma.
In 1999, he received an honorary doctorate from Lunenburg University \"(Germany)
She did an excellent job among the poorest women in India.
She is the chairman of the National Labor Women\'s Union of the poor working class women\'s grassroots trade unions in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & the chairman of Andhra Pradesh and the Indian women\'s cooperation network, specially developed by her into an informal banking system, to meet the needs of poor women as national delivery mechanismsExtensive operation.
She has received so many national and international awards for her outstanding service to poor working women.
Some of them are \"Stree Shakthi Purasakar\" from Tamil Nadu government, the \"2003 International Activist Award\" from GlietsmanFoundation, California, USA & from the National Awareness ForumIndia). Dr.
Jaya arunalam was also honored by her efforts to eliminate caste taboos by the apr2000 Kennedy Center\'s important voice global partnership, religion and the advancement of Dalits and marginalized women.
Competitors: microfinance institutions-
The changes in South Asia are small, and the poor dream of getting money from debt lenders, friends and relatives and traditional circular savings and credit associations such as chit funds.
In early 1970, governments began offering subsidized credit to small farmers as a poverty alleviation strategy.
At about that time, social workers like doctors
Arunachalam in southern India, Ela R.
Bhatt in western India and mohammed Yunus in Bangladesh have adopted a breakthrough approach to ensure that poor people have access to bank support and sustainable microfinance institutions to meet the financial needs of the poor, through the launch of institutions such as the Professional Women\'s Forum, Mahila Sewa SahakariBank in Ahmad, Bangladesh, and Grameen Bank in Bangladesh.
All of these institutions have begun to provide services to poor women, thereby proving that the poor, especially women, are trustworthy people who need financial services and are eager to comply with the financial discipline they need.
The unique feature of WWF is that it provides training and confidence in addition to loans.
These and similar examples are available elsewhere, and the decade of 1980 was an innovative approach to microfinance with a focus on women as key clients.
With the advent of 1990, there are different modes of microfinance institutions (MFIs)
Established to meet the poor\'s need for financial services.
This decade has also witnessed the beginning of the bank.
Contact Programme for India.
National Agricultural and Rural Development Bank (NABARD)
Initiate this programme to reach poor families by linking community-based selfhelp groups (SHGs)
Working with regular financial service providers.
As of 2004, 17 branches of WWF had approved 1,250,678 loans, while commercial banks (
Commercial, regional village banks, cooperative banks)
67,118 branches approved 2,684,683 small loans. (3)
As of June 2005, the default rate of WWF was only 1.
21%, and the public sector bank defaulted on the 31st. 3.
2003 The following are: Initial Challenges and Strategies: problems faced by lenders and government officials in exploiting poor women
There are many entrepreneurs.
The first and most important thing is the exploitation of money. lenders.
The interest rate charged each year is as high as 120%, and many people are in debt.
Lack of credit, police harassment and lack of proper market places are some of the business constraints facing poor women.
Not only do they fall into a network of extreme poverty, debt, illiteracy, but they know little about the basic services the government provides to the poor.
These women lack education, basic health care and serious family problems.
Continued assistance was felt necessary.
WWF has conceived a \"holistic approach\" to help these poor women, including credit, training and group solidarity \".
The professional women\'s forum was born with an activist commitment to promote social and economic independence for women in extreme poverty
Give them small loans.
The influence of WWF is shown in the table. 2.
Challenge forum for conservative trade unions organize the experience of micro entrepreneurs and families in the informal sector
Basic producers have effectively demonstrated that new forms of mobilization and forums of struggle for this part of the working class are possible and are in progress.
To this extent, it challenges more conservative unions in which the form of mobilization and struggle is limited to factory gates, workshops and wage issues.
At the experimental level, forming neighborhood groups to promote grass-
Grassroots Leadership and the use of peer group support and stress strategies to minimize alienation is an input that is not specific to the region or culture.
In this regard, organizational structure, leadership structure and group decision-making --
The production process is feasible.
Bank executives have a negative attitude towards small loans. bank executives initially laughed at allowing poor female hawkers to enter their premises and were frustrated with the issuance of small loans. So Mrs.
Arunachalam started her own--Credit Network (IndianCo-
Women\'s Action Network Limited-ICNW)
This has expanded microfinance assistance to strengthen the economic capacity of poor women by providing microfinance services to lift them out of debt and extreme poverty.
As of March 31, 2005, WWF had covered about 2,078 slums and 415 villages. 11.
400,355 microcredits were issued to 54 million members (Table. 3).
WWF provided insurance and Social Security to 465,315 women and reproductive and child health services to 1,618,842 poor women, such as land rights, housing rights, equal/minimum wage rights, access to technical trading equipment, etc.
The impact study on the international northwest region shows that 63% of women (share holders)
These credits are for commercial purposes only, while others are for survival needs.
Outreach and team building: the understanding of micro-financial products in ic northwest spread\'s \'word of mouth, \'gives customers confidence in the reliability, affordability and sustainability of services.
The General Assembly/regional meetings of WWF under trees or temples/churches/mosques have also enabled it to expand its scope.
According to the need to access microfinance services, women\'s organizations themselves join the community solidarity group
Elect your own leader.
The leaders and members paid mutual guarantees to ensure that the group quickly repaid the ic northwest loan.
The table shows the wise range of states in the northwest of ic. 4.
Field Assessment and loan sanctions: the organizers of the forum also lived nearby, identified the group and discussed her assessment of the group with the credit officer at ic Northwest at the daily meeting.
The staff of icnw then conducted a field assessment to assess the poverty situation, group dynamics and working capital needs of potential clients and made suggestions.
The loan sanctions committee then imposed sanctions on the members of the panel.
Women received their first loan in about a month. day leadership-
Training program.
However, the subsequent loan takes about a week of sanction Time, which the organizer conveyed to the client.
Growth challenges and strategies while the forum is a class structure in terms of membership, in the first few days of the organization\'s work, it mainly deals with gender and caste issues.
In the case of the city, the occupation of automatic selling/selling is a micro-enterprise, because the City group was originally organized, so it has nothing to do with classification. Howevergender (
Violence against women)castes (
Most service personnel are people who are not accessible)
Because of the high prevalence of alcohol abuse in urban centres, it has reached its peak.
In addition, most of the Service Personnel belong to the Scheduled Caste (
Lower grades in India\'s socio-economic category)
Therefore, the team is more cohesive.
WWF has developed leadership among these women.
But later, when WWF organized agricultural workers, export workers, piece rate and contract workers such as cigars, fungus and handicrafts, lace and weaving hours in the textile industry, class nature
In this regard, women are particularly faced with low wages, poor working conditions and strong exploitation.
Due to the alternative of cattle raising, very few farm workers from families in the Dindigul branch of WWF launched a real positive attack on the landlord, who had to correct his salary by slightly increasing his salary
While such marginal growth may be the result of their struggle, we believe that such efforts have freed women workers from dependence on landlords.
Women lace artisans working in rural naraspur in Andhra Pradesh were completely ignored by trade unions, including the Communist Party of India, while working at home, and were therefore referred to as leisure time employment.
Similarly, Beedi/Agarbathy rolling, fishing Women\'s Fish marketing activities organized by the male-dominated union are also considered leisure activities.
In fact, fishing is more lasting than fishing.
Even when her husband did not go fishing, fishermen women had to buy retail goods from wholesale auctioneers.
Similarly, although women\'s responsibility is a significant part of many occupations, their responsibility is low ---
Pay hard work and leisure time work.
Therefore, in order to strengthen women\'s bargaining position and oppose vested interests, the National Labor Women\'s Union was registered as a trade union in 1982, which is a turning point in the lives of women workers.
This is really a very-
Feltneed needs to provide a clearer focus to counter the presence of hostile elements in the production process, where women have a great push.
In addition to the initial grassroots nature, WWF has gained additional strength by joining the trade union process to strengthen women\'s economic roles.
By forming trade unions, they can take advantage of health programmes and have them take care of the health aspects of their productive role as workers and their productive role as others.
More specifically, the Union provides affordable premiums for micro-insurance programs, covering the lives of poor women and their families, in response to unexpected disasters such as death, illness and loss of property.
Health insurance takes care of women throughout their life cycle from the stage of the girl child to the age of birth, including maternity benefits and elderly diseases.
There is the potential of people from the grass-roots level, including low levels of education, but there is a high level of common sense and acumen, the model of credit cooperatives, within the access of poor women, the women\'s union is possible.
This guarantees poor women, food, economic security and much needed social security.
The vision of this mass boom must continue in future growth.
Therefore, there are conscious strategies in both urban and rural communities to foster indigenous leaders.
Despite being poor, women members of WWF have not been silent about what happened.
Without WWF, their lives could be severely affected by poverty, cultural, physical and social barriers.
They are committed to improving the lives of sisters in neighbouring countries to empower them, which is an important force in making this World War a broader and meaningful one.
When the critical needs of poor women are more or less met, skills training will continue to uphold their right to better services from the state or other organizations.
This can be seen in many cases.
For example, members of vendors and shopkeepers want their daughters to be socially mobile.
They believe that this can be achieved not only through formal education, but also through skills or process training to prepare them for employment with income.
This led to the launch of vocational training centres for girls in urban areas, as well as other types of skills training such as laceand rope-
Produced in rural areas. (
ILO supports diverse skills
Training Center in naraspur 10 years ago).
Today, some members of WWF are skilled trainers for government lace-making projects.
Applicable technology :(Refer Annexure-
Details of technical loans 1)
In most cases, WWF members are able to move from simple technology to suitable technology, and in other cases, to more complex ones depending on the size and number of loans and the type of trade
For example, in the city of Madras, the loan has been in operation for 17 years, and the salary-
A seminar on leather goods was launched with Rs.
L, the 500 loan has now been able to transfer to larger units with several machines.
The supplier, who originally loaded the goods, moved to the trolley and is now using a moped for business operations.
Myanmar repatriated women, who used custom machines for hand embroidery in the case of continuous loans, and they have moved to businesses that produce synthetic raincoats and gloves.
Many of them operate on the basis of cooperation.
The simple weighing machine has been placed on a precise scale; rice-
Compared to the old stone grinder that now uses an electric grinder, the cake seller.
Women engaged in agricultural labor or earning wages in the nasabul region
The manufacturers have learned shrimp.
Agricultural technology.
For six months a year, they are involved in processing shrimp eggs and breeding in ponds.
During this time, people yearn for Rs. 100 a day.
In Kanchipuram, a lot of wages
With the help of WWF loans, money-making workers have been able to learn the work of silk sari weaving and border looms.
This is easy to learn and requires lesscapedia and provides a good return.
Successful case of WWF members adopting simple technology: in the United StatesS. A.
At the same time as winning the \"important voice\" Global Partner Award
Jaya Arunachalam (
The lady behind the successful woman)
He said: \"In honor of me, you are commemorating the women who stand behind me, and you may not see them, but they are mentally ---
Their story, their struggle and their victory in this hall. \" Ms.
Ms. Shanthi, welding workshop owner
Shanthi w/o Veerappan, 48, with secondary education and 3 children.
She was born and raised in tiluwatriya, Chennai.
Her father is herself. employed.
She is one of five children.
She married her husband.
Veerappan in Karaikudi (Tamil Nadu)
They moved to Chennai to find a good job because of poverty.
Her husband got a job as a night watchman.
But their income is not enough to run the family.
So Shanthi started working as a maid.
Later, she joined a welding shop as a daily bet.
She struggled so hard that she often fell down.
At that stage, she met with an organizer at WWFand and spoke about her problems.
She joined the WWF as a member and used the loan to start selling saris in her spare time while continuing to work in that welding store.
Later, when she knew that the owner of the welding store planned to sell the store, Shanthi thought of buying it.
She applied for a loan from WWF and was approved.
Now, she is the proud boss of the welding workshop, where she works daily.
She transformed the store to a certain extent and paid the salaries of 4 workers. 160/-as daily wage.
She provided a good education for her children.
Her husband never interfered with her decision.
Unfortunately, one of her daughters became a widow, and she did not perform any superstitious rituals that would normally be performed on women when her husband died.
Thanks to the confidence that WWF instilled in her, all positive changes have taken place in her life.
Now she lives a happy life. Ms. Anjugam--
The owner of the tailor unit Anjugam, a divorced person, Elumalai, now 37 years old, with two children, is educated in l0th standard.
Anjugam belongs to the lower
Middle-class families;
Her father works at the Tamil Nadu Power Council.
She is a person of her own choice who works as an electrician.
They have two children and live happily.
All asuden were ill and her aunt\'s daughter helped her with her daily chores.
But unfortunately, she found out that her husband had an affair with the girl, which caused a lot of problems in her family life.
To make matters worse, Anjugam broke his hand in a truck accident.
She was admitted to hospital for 2 months for treatment.
The doctor took her hand off.
In this case, her husband left her and married her aunt\'s daughter.
Despite the help of anjugam\'s parents, she suffered a lot.
Fortunately, the owner of the truck gave her a compensation.
Opened an upscale store for her.
But the income from that business is not enough.
At this time, she began to learn about WWF, where she asked aloan to start her own tailor department with five sewing machines.
She hired five girls to do the job.
Despite losing one hand, she started taking tailor classes for several girls.
Soon her business was successful.
At the same time, with the help of the legal department of WWF, she divorced.
She was able to educate her children well and provide them with other facilities.
Now she has managed her family and career successfully. Ms. Krishnaveni--
Jewel navnavnavvenketesh, 50, has five children and is educated at the topry Mary School.
Krishna Veni was born and raised in tiruval.
Her father is a car driver.
She has a brother.
Her father died when she was 25.
Her mother struggled to raise them alone.
She\'s a milk vendor.
Mr. Krishna was married.
Venketesh, engaged in the manufacture of jewelry boxes.
They have five children, two men and three women.
Unfortunately, the two boys were deaf and dumb.
She had a good education of her 3 girls, 2 of whom were married, but they could not find a groom suitable for the third girl.
No girl is willing to make marrya deaf and dumb for men.
The relatives of Krishna Weini did not worry about her health. being.
Her husband was too old to work and left work.
The family suffered a lot.
At this time, Krishnaveni met with an organizer of the WWF and learned about the help they provided.
She immediately joined the asa membership and received a loan to start her own jewelry box manufacturing business in a small way.
As her husband knew about the manufacture of the jewelry box, he trained his two sons and the business was developed.
They advertise in the newspaper, look for deaf girls for their son, find girls that match perfectly and get them married. The daughters-in-
The law was also trained in this regard.
Krishnaveni used to get the raw materials needed to make jewelry boxes and other materials (such as Swan flannel, machinery, etc. ) from the market.
Now, she plans to expand her business by adding employees who make more jewelry boxes. Ms. K. Rani--
Sugar cane juice shop
K Rani Kandhasamy, 42, has two children and is educated at level 7.
Rani is from a very poor family in Ariyaloor, a small village in Tamil Nadu.
Her father is in the banana business.
He has four daughters and a son.
Lanni married her uncle\'s son.
Her husband works in a hotel. He earned Rs. 100/-per week.
They lived in a rented house with their 3 children, one of whom died from illness.
Her husband\'s income is not enough to manage the family.
Her husband\'s friend advised him to leave the hotel to work and suggested opening a sugar cane juice store.
They started, there were 5 sugar cane juicer in 5 different places and hired 5 people to operate these machines.
The business is doing very well.
Their location is not good.
One day a friend left the company and rani shusband managed the company alone.
When the wholesale market moved from the corner of Parry to toKoyambedu, he began to lose his business and one day he knew that the man who worked with his machine took the machine. He lostRs.
200,000 he became an alcoholic due to this severe pressure.
The family began to face many problems.
During this period, Rani learned about WWF through its organizers and received a loan.
She started using the money.
Make small dishes and sell flowers.
She got another loan from Rs.
10,000 of sugar cane juice
Then the same business started.
She received more loans because of her rapid repayment.
With a loan, she began her sugar business for her son.
With another loan, she bought a grinder and refrigerator, opened a small snack shop on the main road, installed a sugar cane juicer, sold sugar juice, pot leaves, cigarettes, water
From the income she received from her business, she built her own house and rented it out.
Now she is in good condition and provides employment for those in need. Ms. Sheila Krishnan-Photo-
The copier Sheela is 34 years old with children and is educated to a level 10 standard.
She was born and raised in Chennai.
She has two brothers.
When she finished the tenth standard, she married Krishna.
He works in a private company.
She joined the WWF due to insufficient family income and got a loan to start her own sales Sari business (
Traditional clothing for Indian women).
She made another loan and opened a public telephone booth.
Later, she learned to type, bought a typewriter and began to type.
Then she got a loan for buying a used Xerox machine.
All these activities were carried out in her own home.
Later, she rented a shop to sell saris for typing and copying.
She hired a girl for the monthly salary of Rs. 1000.
Shanthi runs her family without relying on her husband.
All these women have adopted simple techniques for their greater economic development.
They encountered difficulties in the implementation of the above projects.
Their morale and confidence have brought great changes to their lives.
Forum on working women (Indian)
Affiliated to the International Alliance of Raiffiessan (IRU)
Union of German and international chemical energy and mining workers (ICEM), Brussels.
* WWF is a founding member of the grassroots organization in which the sisters work (GROOTS).
WWF has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
: The International Selection Committee congratulates WWF on being selected as one of 200 projects around the world and recommends registration at the Expo
2000 held in Hanover. * Dr.
Arunarunachalam has won the Global Partner Award for important voices in the United StatesS.
A provide services to poor women through WWF
Other people\'s comments on Jaya achalam are: * \"The key factor in my opinion is leadership, and there is no such right Leadership Program.
There are a lot of potential people like Jaya around them, finding them and promoting their presence is the task of development practitioners. \"--
JasonBrown, consultant, United States Agency for International Development.
* \"Working Women\'s Forum is one of the most interesting organizational campaigns I have had the opportunity to visit.
I am very grateful that two years after reading and hearing this forum, I have had the opportunity to discuss the Forum event with professional women themselves.
I admire them, their products and their unity.
I wish you all the best and hope to see you more often in the coming years of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization --
Working with the Dutch government. \"--
Maidan Shaw Pavilion (SD)
Ambassador of the Netherlands
Equality between men and women is a question of human rights and a need for social justice.
In the handbook on the status of development assistance in 1996, the German international hunger Commission believes that the content and scale of measures to improve the status of women are rather arbitrary and coincidental in many development cooperation organizations, because there is a lack of programme concept and commitment within the organization.
WWF, as a non-governmental organization, chaired by Jaya Arunachalam, has set a very positive example for the implementation of the \"empowerment of women\" approach, which involves not only the productive work of women
The project of the organization involves both the actual needs of women in their daily lives (
Actual gender needs)
And their strategic needs (
Strategic Gender needs)
The goal is along-
The long-term change in gender ratio in political, social and economic affairs.
The success of WWF has been highlighted from the details collected in the field of WWF member programmes (Annexure-2).
Learn from the success of WWF\'s cost-effective grass-roots development process \"from below leadership\", engagement and non-engagement
Members know that their wisdom is recognized and they can get decisions directly --making.
There is no need for education or large-scale capital investment for development.
Helping women to help themselves find a path to leadership, open to all, by conducting leadership training based on the environment in which leadership is provided, and by establishing a system that will automatically allow leaders to assemble every 10 members
The leadership of the poor can break the barriers of ignorance and resistance.
Sharing the experience of a newly born \'network of sisterhood, \'therefore, the forum is now sharing its experience and success with similar organizations around the world, debt-laden poor women are the poorest and smallest businesses to trust because the poor people involved are trustworthy.
Bankscan offers small loans and more than 90% of borrowers have repaid the loans, and they can get services at very low overheads without much supervision.
Low level of income, high level of development, great social change, small loans have helped a lot in helping these poor women to slowly improve their income levels, and have led to high levels of personal and family development, in the long run, society happens.
Reasons for the success of this women\'s movement (a)
It is both an organization and a movement. (b)
Exceptional leadership and keen leadership. (c)
Employees are dedicated, skilled and willing to work for low wages;
Organizers Respond to the needs of members. (d)
Members feel it is their own organization responding to their key needs.
They give time to make it stronger. (e)
Due to a high level of commitment, the group leader accepted the responsibility of the group members to repay the loan and perform the necessary tasks. (f)
It relies on volunteers to do anything, keep a clear head, and make full use of capital resources for members\' credit needs. (g)
The poor are involved as subjects rather than objects of the development process, so it is possible to generate growth more quickly.
The experience of WWF undoubtedly proves that, with dedicated leadership, NGOs can educate the poor and the poor by bringing together to educate them on economic independence, family planning, to change their lives by providing them with microfinance.
Appropriate training and guidance can help these women improve their quality of life.
This model of forming a self-help group with selected volunteers and members can be replicated, and these volunteers and members jointly guarantee repayment of loans for sanctions and encourage savings between members.
The state and the central government have realized the potential interests of themselves.
Help groups and announce plans to promote the concept.
As loans are repaid well, banks are also starting to fund SHG projects and meet their social responsibility standards.
This model can be adopted and replicated in other regions.
In fact, WWF is willing to share its experience with interested people.
WWF members who are planning to benefit from the microfinance program in the future are expanding their businesses and coming back to apply for the next larger loan amount.
They are also updating their technology for their businesses.
Since this involves higher technical skills than the current small transaction, a technically qualified person will be hired to live in the village and provide technical support.
Several Indian organizations have agreed to provide partial funding and are working on the first experimental organization.
The forum also plans to expand its literacy centres through expanded grants in India
German Society of Social Services
WWF plans to share its success
Credit with other NGOs (
Especially non-governmental organizations in northeastern India.
Thus contributing to the economic development of the region.
They are learning from Latin American and African countries through GROOTS.
End with 25 years of experience, expertise and experiments to empower poor working women at the grass-roots level
WWF has achieved rapid and tangible results in helping them solve their economic, political, social and health problems.
This success demonstrates that the ideal development approach is to first address the most critical and direct problems of the participants so that they can set the ideal situation when dealing with complex needs later.
Combined with key factors of local leadership
Levels of commitment at all levels, participatory development processes like WWF have evolved into a large-scale grassland movement --
Root empowerment.
From an isolated community characterized by unemployment, low income, environmental degradation and illiteracy, an independent group identified and trained by WWF has emerged, they provided new ideas and cultural resources for the whole region.
They have acquired the essential elements of empowerment, namely, controlling changes in income, family decision-making --
Production, communication of skills, reduction of Housekeeping time, participation in external institutions and greater voice in local institutions and power structures set an example for the community.
The \"sharing and caring\" character of the poor helps to advance this empowerment process.
When these people pass on their experience and learning to others, they become the focus of the community.
Therefore, poor women in the community have gained new confidence and confidence both inside and outside the family.
\"According to the custom and law that the man is responsible for, the woman is suppressed and she has no hands in the shaping process. . .
Women have the right to shape their own destiny, just as men have the right to shape their own destiny. . .
It is the responsibility of men to see that they can achieve their full status and play their role as equals \"---Mahatma Gandhi.
Now under the direction of the doctor.
WWF is working to achieve gender equality among the poorest women.
Let this movement spread across the country and the world. . . . Annexure-1.
Details of the technical loan are provided to members of WWF for the purchase of the following technical equipment/machinery: grinder, welder, embroidery machinery, sewing machine, mobile laundry, tri-
Cycle, sugar cane juicer, jewelry box manufacturing machinery, etc. [1US$ = Rs. 45. 56 as on 31. 08. 2007]
Attachment: 2 findings from WWF project area: Micro-results
Credit * about 80% of respondents received credit assistance between rs. 300-400/-($9-12)
About 58% of the latest loan recipients said for the first time that they had received Rs. 1,600/-($46).
* According to the data, the use of loans ranges from business investment, business expansion, start of additional business, repayment of old debts, household expenses and education for children.
* About 63% of loans are for trade purposes only.
Some respondents said they had repaid their old debts.
* 26% of the children of the members are in primary education and 41% of the members receive secondary education.
* Research shows that 60% of women were engaged in paid work before joining the ic northwest, of which about 45% were unemployed.
Most of them are entrepreneurs now.
74% borrowed at an annual rate of 120.
360% and 86% have now been relieved by the efforts of the ic northwest.
WWF and its impact on poor women * poverty is not necessarily an obstacle to managing development projects;
: Economic development can provide a positive basis for promoting social change;
: If change promoters come from within the community, the leadership of the poor can break the barriers of ignorance and resistance;
* WWFare grass-roots model promotes innovative banking and trade union institutions to improve the conditions of workers in the information sector.
Poor women are funded, their businesses can develop, and they can create assets.
When social service spending is consumed in this way, economic growth can be stimulated by creating demand.
The effective low-cost model of WWF human resource development is replicable.
Low incomes of the poor can achieve a high level of human development.
Interpersonal communication can eliminate fears and misconceptions in any project * rights approach that forum leaders have persuaded to help poor women fight bureaucratic and political pressures through the process of empowering supported by selfless community leaders.
* There is no need for large-scale capital investment or education for success.
Thank you for your heartfelt thanks to the doctor.
Jaya Arunachalam, employees and members of the WWF, who work with all their heart and soul
The necessary data are provided for us to prepare this case study.
Bibliography Ann Arbor, Michigan: The Foundation for the creation of women\'s solidarity: University of Michigan Press 1988 India Labor Women\'s Forum grassroots study.
Arunachalam, stella.
1991. credit needs of women workers in the informal sector.
Case Study of Labor Women\'s Forum (India)
Published a paper at the Asia and Pacific Development Centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. September 1991. Azad, Dr. Nandini.
1986 \"empowering women workers: WWFexperiment in Indian cities\" (Mylapore, WWF).
James McGregor Burns1978. Leadership (
New York, Harper and Lo).
Robert Chambers. 1986.
Forum for working women: Acounter-
Culture of poor women (
University of Sussex, University of Development Studies, Brighton). G.
Ponniah, 1989, \"the ideology and status of women in society \". In P.
Wignaraja and. Hussain (Ed)
Challenges in South Asia;
Development, democracy and regional cooperation
New delhi/Newbury Park/London operations: Sage Publications, Karachi/Oxford University Press. ILO 1991.
The plight of the informal sector, Report of the director
International Labor Conference, 78 session, Geneva.
The Reserve forces of Jaya Arunachalam and brenceldt--
Building and disseminating the movement: the history and development of the Working Women\'s Forum (India)1978-
2003, published by IKO, 2003 Jaya Arunachalam: equality of women--
Struggle for Survival.
Ji \'an Press, New Delhi 2005, China
Azad, 1986, empowerment of women workers: Workers: Labor Women\'s Forum experiment in Indian cities, New Delhi: leaders. N.
Azad, 1994, \"struggle for better human settlements for women in Madras city: integration of employment, organization and housing\", document prepared for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. N.
Azad, 1998, the foundation for creating women\'s solidarity: A Study of grass
WWF\'s root credit Group in India, Michigan, Illinois: University of Michigan Press. NGO--Co-
Business development and operation: empowering women.
Paper published at the conference of the International Society for Development, held in Rome, Italy, \"Development of fairness and ecological security: Strategies and institutions for the 21 st century\", 11-
September 12, 1992. P.
Wignaraja, women, poverty and Resources, New Delhi/Newbury Park/London: legendary publication.
Edgar H. Shane1988.
Organizational Psychology (Englewood-
CIFS New Jersey, New York )-Hall, 3rd ed. )
Concepts and brief explanations come from R.
Chambers, 1985, working women\'s forum-anti-culture of poor women in New Delhi: UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia.
Forum on working women (India). 1992.
Reaching out to poor women: an experiment in India (Madras).
Hindu newspaper, September 7, 2005.
Economic Times, November. 11th 2005.
Interview with a doctor
Lady and her team.
Dr. Shan xinlaschpanS. N.
Mrs. Soundara Rajan. Santhi. N. & Ms. Sudha.
By Shanthi Nachiappan (1)and S. N.
Soundara Rajan (2)(1)(
Chennai, vc, VCMCS, Professor & Hyde-66)
Email: thinsha @ yahoocom (2)(
Dean of Chennai REC)
Email: snsrajan @ yahoocom (3)
Sources trends and progress of Bank of India, Mumbai, Reserve Bank of India.
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...