plastic bag charge: the unintended consequences of the 5p deterrent
We went home at 7 last year.
64bn tote bag, about 140 per person.
But now the government is fighting them.
The 5 p a bag charge that the store must introduce has proven to be able to significantly reduce consumption elsewhere.
According to Welsh data, the use of plastic bags has dropped by about three-
The quarter after 5 p charges were introduced in 2011. Ireland\'s €0. 15 (11p)
The tax on bags has led to a 90 pc reduction in consumption.
Scotland introduced similar measures at the end of 2014, which appeared to have had a similar impact.
Neil Hockley, lecturer in economics and policy at the School of Environment at Bangor University, said: \"in reducing the use of plastic bags, this will be very, very effective.
\"This is a good example of how people respond to incentives, even if they are small.
\"The ministers claim that the consumption of plastic bags in the UK is likely to drop by 80 pcs.
This charge is an example of what we call the \"Pigovian tax\", which is intended to reduce costs for third parties, or what economists call \"negative externalities \".
Plastic bags are an example of a product that brings social costs to people other than users.
The purpose of the tax is to increase the cost of shoppers so that third
Can reduce the cost of party.
The most important of these concerns is the fear of garbage.
Plastic bags can take 1,000 years to degrade and can become a disease in rural areas.
Ministry of Environmental, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)
Describe these bags as \"iconic symbols of waste \".
It will also cause harm to the ecology.
As one study cited by the government explains, \"blocking the intestines can hurt or even kill organisms when seabirds, marine mammals or fish ingest plastic particles \".
Many plastic bags are eventually photographed by landfill sites: Alamy, but they are not a big part of the total amount of garbage.
Plastic bags account for 0.
According to some estimates, 1 pc and 1 pc for all junk projects.
On the beach, the bag is a slightly bigger problem.
It is estimated that here they account for about 2 pcs of all the garbage found during the beach cleaning process. Clean-
According to Defra, the price per pack is up to £ 10 per year.
Mr Hawkley said: \"You may have a very big impact on a very small problem.
Evidence from Ireland shows that the number of plastic bags has dropped by about twice.
From 2000 to 2002.
Mr. Hawkley continued: \"This is one of the religious policies.
You can see that you\'re doing something that sounds dramatic, but it doesn\'t have that big impact on anyone.
\"In terms of its overall impact on the environment, plastic bags may be the best choice for the environment.
If you remember to take them to the store, you may not find yourself having too much inconvenience, but they may not be that good for the environment.
According to UNEP, cotton bags need to be used 131 times more than regular plastic bags in order to better limit global warming.
If shoppers reuse plastic bags from about 40 PCs, the number will rise to 173 times.
So much reuse \"seems very ambitious,\" the agency said \".
Most cotton bags are not used in such a close place.
The bag ban caused many customers to start using paper bags.
There is no charge for mail bags in the UK.
According to a study, this in turn led to San Francisco\'s \"landfill garbage larger than plastic bags \".
Handbag rules in Austin, Texas have had a similar effect.
Shoppers there are starting to throw away more heavy stuff
Reusable bags, resulting in an increase in landfill sites.
These estimates do not include the environmental cost of washing reusable bags, something users need to remember.
The cotton bag is even worse once you consider all the hot water we will have to use.
Reusable bags can be used as a shelter for a variety of bacteria.
When the researchers collected the bacteria from shoppers in California and Arizona, they found that \"a large number of bacteria were found in almost all bags, and the coliform bacteria were only half \".
This is partly because people keep them in their car boots.
Excellent breeding ground for microorganisms.
The researchers found E. coli in 12 bags.
Commonly known as E. coli.
Most strains are harmless, but some cause diarrhea and sometimes kidney failure or even death.
Susan finiak, director of Infectious Disease and Control Prevention in San Francisco, told NPR: \"Your average healthy person will not get sick because of the bacteria listed.
\"But the public health department in San Francisco does advise people to consider keeping their luggage clean.
\"It may be useful to remind people to use safe food --
Treatment methods include keeping everything clean that they use to transport, process and prepare food, \"it said.
Simply wash the bag by hand can be more than 99.
Pc is effective in eliminating these bacteria, but many of us have not done so.
There are no shoppers in California and Arizona.
They admitted to the researchers that they rarely cleaned reusable bags if any.
This change can be a headache for employees who have to resolve disputes with disgruntled customers and have to supervise the use of plastic bags.
John Hannett, secretary-general from the store workers union USDAW, said: \"Whenever a process like this changes, people get frustrated and can vent to store workers.
\"When plastic bags were banned in some stores in Los Angeles, total sales and employment declined.
\"The effect is to reduce spending in the ban area while increasing sales and employment in shops that allow the use of plastic bags, according to the National Center for Policy Analysis and Research.
The cost of 5 p may also drive more customers to shop online, as retailers can deliver goods to their homes without bags, which makes it cheaper than before.
Ryan Bourne, head of public policy at the Institute of Economic Affairs, said: \"Just like any tax, you get the least amount of distorted results on a broader basis;
From an economist\'s point of view, a unified tax must be imposed on plastics.
\"If it\'s really about plastic, you won\'t have an exemption, and all businesses are unified.
\"Retailers with fewer than 250 employers will be exempt from compulsory fees and some products will be excluded.
\"There are a lot of unexpected consequences and benefits from using plastic, so this calculation will not increase.
\"We should not have such a policy,\" Mr Bowen said . \".