plastic bag bans are spreading. but are they truly effective?
Thin plastic shopping bags in the wakurima aviation market have disappeared and have been expelled from Kenya\'s ban on the use of plastic bags.
At this busy agricultural center 95 miles northwest of Nairobi, agricultural sellers now pack perishable foods in bags made of thicker synthetic fabrics.
Citizen activist James Wakibia walks on a narrow sidewalk, winding around a vegetable stall.
Replace plastic bags with plastic bags. He is the 36-year-
The old face of the social media campaign prompted the ban in 2017 and said the imperfect ban was better than the one.
Well, they\'re polypropylene, but they\'re reusable and they\'re not thin bags that can be blown away by the wind, he said.
The United Nations says Kenyans use 100 million bags per year in supermarkets alone, so we saved 100 million bags.
I will set the success rate at 80%.
A group of local fishermen in Kenya are building a ship with plastic waste to raise awareness of marine plastic pollution.
This video was selected as a short film presentation for National Geographic.
Shopping bags are often described as the number one consumer product in the world and the most common consumer product, and are now one of the most popular consumer products in the worldbanned.
As of last July, the United Nations counted 127 countries that had banned or taxed the bags-bag and bag regulations and that the proliferation was so fast, especially at the local level, that even al-Qaida
The backed terrorist group joined the ban on plastic shopping bags last summer as it posed a serious threat to oil wells
The existence of humans and animals.
This spring, the EU took steps to ban plastic bags as part of a comprehensive effort to get the most common plastic items on European beaches.
In the United States, New York became the second state to ban plastic bags after California this month. this winter, at least 95 bills related to plastic bags were introduced at the State Council meeting, more than any other year. (
Hawaii is in fact banned from carrying children across the state because children are banned in every county. )
However, as the bag ban spreads globally, although wakibia has conducted a sunny assessment of kenya\'s efforts, their effectiveness remains an unanswered question.
The bag ban spawned a ban on other plastic products, including plates, cups, cutlery, straws and bottles, as part of an effort to expand efforts to reduce individual plastic products
Plastic accounts for about 40% of the world\'s plastic manufacturing.
However, whether the ban can significantly reduce the annual average of 8 million tons of plastic waste leaking into the ocean remains to be seen, especially considering that plastic production is expected to double by 2040 and by 2050, oil production may account for 20% of world oil production.
Even the most ardent supporters of the ban are aware of the restrictions.
As important as banning singles.
Plastic bags are used to reduce the source of plastic bags and it will not change the world, says Mark Murray, California\'s executive director against waste.
The main point, frankly, is to communicate with decision makers, the public, and for the industry where we have to do something serious to reduce plastic packaging, if none of you know how to do that, we will start to ban your products once.
It took less than 40 years for plastic bags to transition from Marvel to threat.
Plastic bags were born after-
Plastic household products manufactured in World War II exploded and became popular in the 1970 s.
By the end of 1980, grocery stores in the United States had shifted from paper to plastic;
Millions of people used plastic bags in large quantities after that.
Company statistics on the number of plastic shopping bags produced today are difficult to count, and even the industrial trade group, the United States progressive bags Alliance, said it did not know the figure.
According to United Nations estimates, bags produced around the world are between one and 5 trillion.
According to the Earth Policy Institute, even with the lowest numbers, this means 2 million bags per minute.
Even the garbage collection system in Western countries was flooded with bags.
In addition, although polyethylene can be easily recycled, it does not help the fragile membrane bag to be one of the least recycled plastic products.
In the United States, there are very few sorting facilities that accept them, because they tend to block machines that are not suitable for processing movies.
Plastic bags are the top five items found in beach and river cleaning, and the damage to wildlife has been well documented.
Once they reach the sea, they will deteriorate rapidly.
In a dramatic experiment at the University of Plymouth, England, marine scientist Richard Thompson, who created the word \"micro-plastic\", and his two students fed fragments of a plastic bag to two feet
As with shellfish, it is found that creatures can quickly tear a bag into one.
Microscopic fragments of 75 million
Sea turtles, dolphins and whales also consume the entire bag.
In the past month alone, two more dead whales have been rushed to the beach with bags and other plastic stuffed in their stomachs, increasing the number.
It\'s cattle and elephants in Kenya.
Bangladesh passed the first bill to ban carrying luggage in 2002, which turned the argument against bans and taxes into a lie, because these bans and taxes have created cheap and sturdy bags for poor countries and poor people who rely on freedom to carry goods and store items.
The African continent is now ahead of the world in terms of package regulations, with 34 countries passing taxes or banks, 31 of which are in
Sub-Saharan Africa, the poorest region in the world.
Penalties in Kenya are the most punitive in the world, with manufacturers, importers, distributors and users facing fines of up to $38,000 or four years in prison.
In Denmark, the world\'s first bag tax was passed in 1993, with residents using four plastic bags per year on average.
In contrast, the United States is the largest plastic packaging waste generator per person, and Americans use almost one bag per person per day.
S. political opposition to the ban has gained momentum from some research that emphasizes the limitations of the ban.
For example, in California, Rebecca Taylor, an economist at the University of Sydney, found that city shoppers who banned plastic bags had fewer shopping bags before the 2016 Statewide ban came into effect, about 40 million of plastic waste has been reduced.
But in her research, she found that sales of garbage bags rose, offsetting the impact of a £ 28 million reduction in plastic bags.
In the United States, the bag industry seeks legislation to improve recycling.
At the same time, it invests in the bin placed at the entrance to the store, hoping that shoppers will put down the old bag that will be re-made into the new bag and complete the circle.
But trying to convince consumers in a country with a recovery rate of 9% to take additional steps and getting the old bags back to the store could be a daunting task.
\"We spent hundreds of millions of dollars recycling plastic retail bags, including stretch film, dry cleaner bags, bread bags, ice bags,\" said Matt haholm. Executive director of the American progressive package Alliance, which claims to be the front line against bans and taxes.
Including buying things from places where things are collected.
We would like to have more stores involved.
We hope to have more stores to promote it.
We want the cashier in the store to tell people they can bring the luggage back.
In Kenya, the ban on bags is facing a series of difficult challenges.
The Kenyan Association of Manufacturers has opposed the ban in court but has not succeeded, warning that plastic manufacturing could lose as many as 100,000 jobs.
Once the ban came into effect, it prompted the creation of bags for smuggling illegal plastic bags from neighbouring Uganda and Tanzania.
In an interview, the head of Kenya\'s national environmental authority, Jeffrey vahonggu, admitted that the government had initially failed to consider what alternative products to replace the banned plastic.
In the end, plastics and other products used to pack a variety of fresh foods, such as meat, are exempt from the ban.
Despite media reports that a roadside fruit seller was caught and his apples were placed in plastic bags, most of the law enforcement was concentrated on dealers, not on individual sellers or consumers.
Nevertheless, implementation is uneven and incomplete, and so far there are clear statistics on the number of arrests and fines.
Activists Walibia said the ban must be tough or Kenyans will ignore it.
He may have a little bit at this point.
Garbage is still gathering heavily on Kenyan soil.
Still, the country is cleaner in some ways.
The number of bags that used to hang on branches like a wind blow cover was less, and there were fewer bags that blocked the drainage system and created breeding pools for malaria --
Because we have taken bold steps, everyone is looking at Kenya now, said Wahungu.
We did not look back.
We are not lax.
But the government faces new challenges by expanding the ban.
The government wants to ban
Woven shopping bags, very eco-friendly
Replaced the friendly pack of thin packs in 2017.
The ban will begin this month, but the court blocked the ban when manufacturers tried to block it.